Of ancient Cuma, the first of the Greek populated colonies in the West founded in the second half of the eighth century BC. from the Euboics-Chalcidians, the acropolis and the lower city can currently be visited.
The Greeks placed the acropolis of their city on Monte di Cuma, in a point that, due to conformity and position, was accessible only from the southern side of the saddle that unites it to the esplanade of the city hill, integrating the natural defenses with fortification walls of which numerous remains are preserved.
The most ancient defense works consist of a wall from the Samnite age, built in blocks of tuff, and a wall from the Greek age, near the sanctuary of Apollo. This line of the fortifications of the acropolis was then connected to that of the lower city. Become a fortified fortress in the late Empire, the acropolis of Cuma was the theater in the sixth century AD. of the wars between the Goths and the Byzantines; then, it was conquered and devastated by the Saracens in 915 AD, becoming since then a den of pirates; finally it was definitively destroyed in 1207 by the Neapolitan army of Goffredo di Montefusco.
The so-called "Antro della Sibilla" is connected to the fortification system of the acropolis, an imposing tunnel dug into the tuff along the terrace overlooking the ancient harbor inlet.
On the highest esplanade of the acropolis stood the so-called Temple of Jupiter; while on the lower one stood the Temple of Apollo. These two sacred buildings were then connected to each other by an ancient axis, known as Via Sacra, paved in the Augustan age.
At the foot of the acropolis lies the lower city, a real town of Cuma. In it, the sporadic explorations conducted in the 18th and 20th centuries have found conspicuous evidence of buildings from the Samnite and Roman periods, concentrated above all in the area of the Forum with its tuff portico: the Capitolium, the Temple with arcades on the southern side of the square, the "Masseria del Gigante", the "Central Baths" and the Baths of the Forum